The Outstanding Ancient Rome - 50 Facts About Roman Life (2023)

Civilization of Ancient Rome

Rome was a small city on the Tiber in central Italy. In the 8th century B.C. BC Rome became an empire. Ancient Rome was a powerful and important civilization that ruled much of Europe for almost 1000 years. The basis for much of western culture comes from ancient Rome.

One of the characteristics of Roman rule is the use of Romance languages ​​(Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian). These languages ​​are derived fromLatin.Rome was a republic for 450 years. Then it became an empire under the rule of the first emperor Augustus.

Rome was founded by two brothers, Remus and Romulus, who were nursed by a she-wolf. Remus was killed. Romulus became ruler and named the city after himself, Rome. The ancient Romans worshiped many different gods and goddesses. Each god and goddess had their specialty.

Ancient Rome had a unique architecture. Ancient Rome lies underground. The ancient Romans had strange eating habits. They used to eat dormouse and other strange foods like flamingos. They used to eat dormouse and other strange foods like flamingos.

The ancient Romans were unique in art. Ancient Rome was covered in graffiti then as it is today. Her graffiti was carved into stone and not painted on. The Romans believed in gods and goddesses who ruled over different areas of life.

Where was lifeAntikes Rom?

As for every culture around the world, there is a significant difference between poor and rich people. In Rome there was also a difference not only between rich and poor, but also between Rome as a kingdom, republic and empire.

Under the Roman EmpireDaily life was centered on farming, fishing, worship, and family. Lower class people, who were called plebeians, could not marry the nobles, who were called patricians. A whole family would live together in one house; married daughters went to live with their husband's family.

Women had no rights and children did not go to school. Some children were homeschooled and all children had many chores to do. The family was ruled by the oldest man in the family, called paterfamilias. He was responsible for all actions of the family. He could banish family members, beat them, or sell them into slavery.

A woman's role was to teach her daughters how to behave and to bear and raise children. You have worked very hard. They taught children to obey the elders. Children never talked to an older Roman or their family. Elderly people were treated with honor and respected for their wisdom.

People worshiped thousands of gods. They used to hold religious festivals at night after they finished farming. They could buy and sell the goods they made and grew in a marketplace.

Under the Roman RepublicFamily was still important.educationalso took on great importance. Some children went to school, others were homeschooled because education wasn't free. Women had some freedoms. They could shop, visit the temples, and even stop to listen to the great speakers in the forum.

The poor worked very hard and still had time to go to the baths and temples. Visiting temples was an important part of their time. The system collapsed at the end of the Roman Republic. There was no police. The roads became dangerous, but the Romans became very sociable.

Under the Roman EmpireThere were security forces on the streets. People come, move freely. Women had more freedom. You could run a business. You might even get a job. Poor people could marry rich people. Merchants managed to build villas on the land.

All Romans, including men, women, children, elders, and slaves, could participate in events such as races and gladiator shows. At first, under the Empire, it was a crime not to worship the Roman gods every day. Later it became a crime if you did.

ancient romanliterature

Ancient Roman literature began sometime around 240 BC. The main thing is Latinlanguageused for writing in ancient Rome. The earliest Roman literary works were historical epics that retold Rome's early military history, while the later works were poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy.

The reign of Augustus and the early part of the Roman Empire are considered the golden age of Roman literature. They wrote on papyrus scrolls or on parchment. They wrote with a metal needle dipped in ink.

Poemsis the best-known type of Roman literature. The Golden Age of Roman poetry was from c. 70 B.C. to AD 14. Some of the famous writers are Virgil, Horace, Catullus, Propertius, Tibullus and Ovid. Virgil conveyed a rather romanticized image of Rome to his audience. His writings reflected his love of country life.

Horace was one of the famous writers in the golden age of Roman poetry. His poems reflect joie de vivre and love of nature. Gaius Valerius Catullus was one of the greatest authors. His poetry mixed passion and knowledge with an awareness of the brevity of life.

Here is a list of the most famous poetic works:

  • Eclogues, written around 37 BC. B.C., by Virgil
  • Georgik, written around 29 BC. B.C., by Virgil
  • Aeneis, ein Epos von Virgil
  • Satires by Horace
  • Epodes of Horace
  • Odes of Horace
  • Amores, published 22 BC B.C., by Ovid

speeches and rhetoricwere considered an important skill in Rome. Greek rhetoric emerged in the mid-2nd century BC. in republican Rome. Marcus Tullius Cicero was one of the most famous Roman statesmen. One of his writings was De Inventione.

Cicero believed that the perfect orator should have the ability to speak wisely and confidently on any subject. During his time, Rome had become a place where there was no room for free speech. He was an idealist. Cicero was born on December 7, 43 BC. killed.

historianwere writers who chronicled the history of Rome. History is part of Roman literature. Livy is one of the three great Roman historians. He began composing and publishing in five book increments. He later wrote 142 books. The books can be classified as follows:

  • 1–5 From the founding of the city to the sack of Rome by the Gauls (386 BC)
  • 6–10 The Samnite Wars
  • 11–15 The conquest of Italy
  • 16–20 The First Punic (Carthaginian) War
  • 21–30 The Second Punic War (to 201 BC)
  • 31–45 events leading up to the end of the war with Perseus (167 BC)
  • 46–70 events leading up to the Social War (91 BC)
  • 71–80 civil wars until death of Marius (86 BC)
  • 81–90 civil wars until death of Sulla (78 BC)
  • 91–103 Events leading up to the triumph of Pompey in 62 BC
  • 104–108 The last years of the republic
  • 109–116 The civil war up to the assassination of Caesar (44 BC)
  • 117–133 From the death of Caesar to the battle of Actium
  • 134–142 From 29 to 9 B.C

Philosophywas considered part of Roman literature. Stoicism was the most popular school of philosophy among the Romans. Stoicism asserts that the universe is entirely rational and governed by ordered natural laws. She was born around 300 BC. Founded by Zeno of Zitium in Athens.

Stoicism can be roughly divided into three periods: early (3rd century BC), middle (2nd and 1st centuries BC), and later (1st and 2nd centuries AD). Seneca, Epictetus and the Emperor Marcus Aureliu were some of the most famous Roman historians.

Roman recordswas considered part of Roman literature. Roman was organized in such a way that they kept many written records. They had records of every citizen's personal information. They kept records of age, gender, and marital status. They also kept records of government regulations and laws.

Brief facts on Roman literature:

  • The earliest works of Roman literature were dramatic tales of famous battles and victories.
  • Drama and poetry, so influential, began to appear towards the end of Rome
  • The "Golden Age" of Roman literature is often associated with Cicero's first speech in 81 BC. and ended in AD 17 with the death of Ovid.
  • The "Silver Age" that followed the Golden Age of Roman writing wasn't quite as grand. It lasted from 18 to 133 AD.
  • The Silver Age ended with the death of Marcus Aurelius, a Roman emperor. His most famous work, The Meditations, was written in Greek.
  • Julius Caesar, one of the Roman emperors, managed to write some historical works. Although it was mostly about himself!
  • Roman literature didn't end with the Romans! People wrote in Latin well into the 18th century.
  • Famous philosophers and scientists such as Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and René Descartes all wrote in Latin.

Here is a list of the most famous works of Roman literature:

  • Die Anthology von Catull
  • Ovid's Metamorphoses:The Metamorphoses is a massive collection of nearly 12,000 verses in 15 books, recounting 250 myths that claim to tell the story of the world from creation to Julius Caesar's death.
  • Odes of Horace
  • Virgils Aeneas:The 12 books took 11 years to complete.
  • Senecas Thyestes:It is considered his masterpiece and like most of his plays it is gory and melodramatic - Thyestes eats his own children.

5 different outstanding types ofart

The Romans were professional engineers and builders. It has been mentioned that they were probably the first to use concrete and cement as building materials. They wanted their art and architecture to be as applicable and functional as possible.

The Romans improved many new methods of building and construction of all kinds, including Roman roads, Roman arches, and aqueducts. They made the baked brick common in buildings. The Romans improved architecture to express the empire's power and wealth to the rest of the world.

Influenced by Greek art, Roman artists often focused on gods and goddesses alongside philosophers, politicians and other well-known figures. Artists displayed their work in a variety of ways, including sculpture, painting, pottery, reliefs, and architecture.

Roman architecture is popular for a number of reasons including arches, domes, aqueducts, amphitheatres, baths, temples, apartment blocks and houses.

The arch is one of the most important additions that the Romans added to architecture. An arch is a hole in a building that is curved at the top. They are tall structures, generally dating back to Imperial times, and are among Rome's most astounding and remarkable archaeological landmarks.

The curved parts can be round or pointed next to each other. The Arch of Constantine is an example that is one of the most famous arches in Rome. The capstone refers to the stone at the top of the arch. His job is to save the rest of the arch stones from collapsing.

The most notable structure of arches are as follows: the fixed arch, the two-hinged arch, and the three-hinged arch. The fixed arch is often used in retaining concrete bridges and tunnel construction where the spans are short. While the two-hinged arch is often used to bridge large spans.

Accordingly, the three-hinged arch is called statically determinate. The three-hinged arch is also hinged at its base and midspan. It is often used for large building roofs.

Three basic categories of bows

There are three main categories of arches: circular, pointed, and parabolic. Arches with a circular shape are also called round arches. Ancient Roman builders relied heavily on the semicircular arch to expand into large, open spaces. Pointed arches were commonly used by builders of Gothic architecture.

This innovation allowed higher and more closely spaced openings. The parabolic arc generates the greatest thrust at the base but can span the largest areas. It is commonly used in bridge patterns where long extensions are needed.

Let's take a look at the list of the most famous arches in Rome

Nameconstruction timeArt of the BookAddress
The Book of ConstantineIV century ADtriumphal arch00186 Rom, Via di San Gregorio
The Book of TitusI century ADtriumphal archVia Sacra, 00186 Rome, Roman Forum/Palatine,
Bogen des Septimius SeverusII century ADtriumphal archVia dell'Arco di Settimio, 00186 Rom, Forum Romanum,
Arch of GallienoII century ADSolemn Arch/Gate00186 Rom, Via di San Vito,
Arch of Dolabella and SilanoI century ADSolemn Bow00184 Rom, Via di S. Paolo della Croce,
The Janus bookIV century ADSolemn BowVia del Velabro, 5, 00186 Rom

Domes are a feature of architecture, usually resembling the top half of a sphere on a building. It helps identify an important building. They used it to give speeches underneath; when the voice sounds louder. There are different types of domes. Let's look at the table of the different types of domes:

type of domefeaturesPictures
Dome of the Beehiveso-called false dome or corbelled dome consists of purely horizontal layers Example: Mycenaean treasury of Atreus
The Outstanding Ancient Rome - 50 Facts About Roman Life (1)
Braced DomeSingle-layer space structures in the form of a dome often have a very low weight and are usually used to bridge spans of up to 150 meters
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Cloister Vaulted DomeCalled polygonal domes, domed domes and domed domes. The earliest known example is the Tabularium of RomeThe Outstanding Ancient Rome - 50 Facts About Roman Life (3)
Composite DomeCalled domes on pendentives or pendentivedomes have pendentives supporting a smaller-diameter dome directly above them
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onion domeis larger than a hemispherical dome characterized by a pointed apex in an ogee profile. They are typically made of masonry.
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cruciform domeOne of the earliest types of ribbed vaulting, geometry is a key feature of designs
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Geodesic Domeare the upper part of geodesic spheresare made of a frame of triangles in a polyhedron pattern.Such domes can be formed using a small number of simple elementsThe Outstanding Ancient Rome - 50 Facts About Roman Life (7)
Hemispherical domeis half of a sphere Was standardized by Roman builders
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Oval Domeis a dome of oval shape in plan, profile or both of the oval plan church of St. Gereon in Cologne

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parabolic domeis a unique structure that was commonly used in buildings in ancient times
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Sail domeSail vaults, called handkerchief vaults, dome vaults, can be imagined as pendants that draw the image of a square sail that is erected at each corner and blows upwardsThe Outstanding Ancient Rome - 50 Facts About Roman Life (11)
saucer domeCalled segment domes or calottes are strong but have increased radial thrustThe Outstanding Ancient Rome - 50 Facts About Roman Life (12)
umbrella domecalled godroned, fluted, ribbed, parachute, scalloped, organ-whistle, gourd, melon, or lobed domes divided into curved segments at the baseThe Outstanding Ancient Rome - 50 Facts About Roman Life (13)

Here's a table of some of the city's most famous

Let's look at the table with some of the most famous domes in the city:

domeBrief InformationBild
St. Peter's Basilica– She wins the prize for the tallest dome in the world, reaching a height of 130 meters

– It is one of the most popular domes in Rome and Vatican City.

– Michelangelo designed it in 1547.

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Pantheon-Kuppel– is still the largest self-supporting dome in the world

– It is famous for its huge dome

– The main feature of the dome is the oculus at its center

Basilica Santa Maria Maggiore

– It is a popular site for many

– It is decorated with two small domes

– Architect Carlo Rainaldi designed in

The Outstanding Ancient Rome - 50 Facts About Roman Life (15)
Basilica Santa Maria Maggiore– It is a popular site for many

– It is decorated with two small domes

– Architect Carlo Rainaldi designed in

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Church of Santa Maria di Loreto– The construction of the church lasted 70 years

– It was completed in 1577

- Jacopo del Duca's hat is covered.

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Aqueducts are large transportation systemswaterfrom one place to the next. It is a man-made canal that transports water from one place to another. It was used to transport fresh water to cities or to farms for irrigation. The water ran down the aqueduct, and when it entered the city, it ran into a castellum, or collecting tank.

When the Romans built cities, they looked for fresh water sources and then built aqueducts that brought the water into the city. They also learned to build their aqueducts very high so that the water getting more polluted on the way into the city.

The water can be supplied underground through a tunnel or pipe, at ground level through a canal, or over the ground on a bridge. Engineers used gravity to keep the water moving. As soon as the water arrived in a city, it went into the main tank called the castellum.

Smaller pipes carry the water to the secondary castella. Then the water flowed through lead pipes to baths and public fountains. It took 500 years to build Rome's vast system. They built 11 aqueducts from 312 B.C. to 226 AD

Aqueducts have been built in other countries such as India, South Africa, Oman, Persia, Sir Lanka and North America. There are modern aqueducts. They are considered a central part of the water distribution infrastructure of many countries. The aqueducts of the United States are among the largest in the world.

The Catskill Aqueduct supplies water to New York City over a span of 120 miles. There is also the Colorado River Aqueduct, which supplies the Los Angeles area with water from the Colorado River for almost 250 miles. The California Aqueduct, which flows from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to Lake Perris, is 1,129.0 km long.

The Central Arizona Project is located in the United States. It is considered the largest and most expensive aqueduct in the United StatesThe United States. It stretches 336 miles from its source near Parker, Arizona to the metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson.

The Oamaru Borough Race is an aqueduct in New Zealand. It was made in the late 19th century. It carries water from the Waitaki River at Kurow to the coastal town of Oamaru. It extends over around 50 km. In Spain, the Tagus-Segura water transfer system of aqueducts began operating in 1979. It stretches 286 kilometers from north to south.

There are different designs for the aqueducts. One of these designs is open channels. They are like little holes dug in the ground. The main element in the design of all open channels is their slope. They have higher gradients.

A higher gradient allows a smaller canal to deliver the same amount of water as a larger canal with a low gradient. However, it increases the possibility of the water destroying the structure of the aqueduct.

Artificial streams are another design for aqueducts. They are small canals or aqueducts made of stone, brick, concrete or other lining material. Falaj's irrigation system in present-day Abu Dhabi uses streams as part of its irrigation system.

Tunnels are another aqueduct design. In this design, tunnels are built underground. Common in North Africa and Central Asia, this design of regularly spaced vertical wells is called a qanat. An example of this design is the Qanat Firaun in Syria. It stretches over 100 kilometers.

Pipes are one of the designs of the aqueduct. Piping is commonly used in modern aqueducts. They are useful for transporting water over long distances. They can also be used to transfer treated water.

(Video) Roman Facts | Facts about Romans | Ancient Rome for Kids | Rome Facts for Kids | Facts about Romans

Here is a list of water aqueducts:

  • Pont du Gard: Vers-Pont-Du-Gard, Gard, France
  • Aqueduct of Segovia: Spain, Segovia, Castile and León
  • Les Ferreres Aqueduct: Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain
  • Aqua Claudia: Rome, Latium, Italy
  • Valens Aqueduct: Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey
  • Aquädukt von Peña Cortada: Spanien, Chelva, Valencia,
  • Aquädukt von Los Milagros: Merida, Extremadura, Spain
  • Aquädukt von Caesarea Maritima: Israel, Caesarea, Haifa,
  • Aqueduct of Diocletian: Split, Dalmatia, Croatia
  • Aquädukt des Gier: Frankreich, Lyon, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
  • Aquädukt von Zaghouan: Tunesien, Tunis, Government Tunis
  • Aqueduct of Luynes: France, Luynes, Centre-Val de Loire
  • Ponte d'Aël: Aymavilles, Aostatal, Italien
  • Metz Aqueduct: Metz, east Granz, France
  • Eugenius Aqueduct: Turkey, Trabzon, Black Sea Region
  • Aqua Alexandria: Rome, Latium, Italy
  • Lesvos Aqueduct: Greece, Lesvos, North Aegean Region
  • Caños de Carmona: Seville, Andalusia, Spain
  • Aspendos Aqueduct: Turkey, Serik, Mediterranean Region
  • Aquincum Aqueduct: Budapest, Central Hungary, Hungary

The Colosseum is a huge amphitheater in Rome, the capital of Italy. It takes the form of an oval or circular building with rising tiers of seating arranged across a central open space. It is widely believed that the Colosseum was the largest and grandest amphitheater in all of the Roman Empire.

It is sometimes known as the Flavian Amphitheater because it was built during the reign of Roman Emperor Vespasian. The Flavian dynasty or family controlled the Roman Empire between AD 69 and AD 96. Construction of the Colosseum began in AD 72 and was completed eight years later in AD 80.

The Colosseum is built of stones and concrete. It had four main floors, each with eighty arches. It is measured as 620 feet long, 512 feet wide and 158 feet high. More than 1.1 million tons of stone, concrete and brick were used to complete the Colosseum. Around 50,000 to 80,000 people found space in it.

The best seat in the house was associated with the emperor, who sat in the imperial box. Your seating position offered the best view of the arena. Special seats were also given to the senators. The nobles sat closer to the main arena while the audience sat on the upper tiers.

Tunnels called the hypogeum have been found beneath the Colosseum. These tunnels allowed animals, actors, and gladiators to emerge unexpectedly in the middle of the arena. You would use trapdoors to add special effects like landscapes.

In ancient Rome, these buildings served to please the populace. Gladiator fights, executions and athletics were organized there. It contained fights between hand-to-hand combat between gladiators and humans and animals. Many people were sent to their deaths in the Colosseum, possibly 400,000, and many animals perished in the great Roman amphitheater.

The Colosseum is also still a powerful symbol of Imperial Rome, despite being destroyed by earthquakes and stone robbers. The south side of the Colosseum was damaged in a major attackearthquakein the year 847.

Here is a list of the 20 most famous amphitheaters in Rome:

1. Colosseum – Rome, Latium, Italy

  • The largest and most popular of all Roman amphitheatres
  • The Colosseum was the most visited place in the world in 2018
  • The capacity is over 80,000

2. Amphitheater of Nîmes – Nîmes, Occitania, France

  • Capacity is 24,000+
  • The amphitheater is used as a bullring in modern-day France during the summer months.

3. Amphitheater El Djem: Tunesien, El Djem, Mahdia,

  • Capacity is 35,000+
  • It is the tallest and most impressive structure in the entire city.
  • Construction was completed in 238 AD

4. Arles Amphitheater: Arles, Provence, France

  • The capacity is 20,000+
  • In the Middle Ages, the arena was reused as a defensive fortress.
  • UNESCO World Heritage Site

5. Verona Amphitheater – Verona, Veneto, Italy

  • The capacity is 30,000+
  • Verona's amphitheater is one of the best preserved in Italy.
  • Today it is one of the most remarkable places in Verona and is still used for concerts and performances

6. Pula Amphitheater: Pula, Istria, Croatia

  • Capacity is 23,000+
  • The Pula Amphitheater is one of the most notable Roman sites in all of Croatia.

7. Pompeii Amphitheater: Pompeii, Campania, Italy

  • The capacity is 20,000+
  • The Pompeii Amphitheater is the oldest Roman amphitheater still in existence today.

8. Amphitheater von Uthina: Tunesien, Mohammedia, Ben Arous Government

  • Capacity is 16,000+
  • The seats of the Uthina amphitheater are only about 60% intact

9. Great Amphitheater of Leptis - Libya, Khoms, Murqub

  • Capacity is 16,000+
  • Construction was completed around AD 56.

10. Avenches Amphitheater: Switzerland, Avenches, Vaud

  • Capacity is 16,000+
  • Avenches amphitheater was completed in 165 AD
  • Visitors can enter the center of the arena and stand right where gladiator fights used to take place.

11. Tarragona Amphitheater – Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain

  • Capacity is 15,000+
  • UNESCO heritage
  • About 50% of the rows of seats are still preserved, as well as a good part of the archways on the south facade.

12. Merida Amphitheater – Merida, Extremadura, Spain

  • UNESCO heritage

13. Italica Amphitheater – Santiponce, Andalusia, Spain

  • Capacity is 25,000+
  • It was also recently used as a filming location for Game of Thrones in 2017

14. Trier Amphitheater – Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

  • The capacity is 20,000+
  • UNESCO heritage

15. Alexandria Amphitheater – Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

  • The capacity is 600+
  • Construction was completed in the 4th century AD

16. Lecce Amphitheater – Lecce, Puglia, Italy

  • Capacity is 25,000+
  • The seats and the facade of the arena are built of yellow-white sandstone

17. Cagliari Amphitheater – Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

  • The capacity is 10,000+
  • Most of the seating was adapted to the slope of the hill, and there was also a large entrance facade on the south side.

18. Flavian Amphitheater of Pozzuoli: Italy, Pozzuoli, Campania,

  • Capacity is 50,000+
  • It is the third largest amphitheater built in the Roman Empire.

19. Capua Amphitheater: Italy, Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Kampanien,

  • Capacity is 60,000+
  • It is the second largest amphitheater saved from antiquity.

20. Aquincum Amphitheater: Hungary, Budapest, Central Hungary,

  • The capacity is unknown
  • It was an important military training center

Thermen are versatile spaces designed for a public bath where people bathe and meet. The public bath was like a community center where people moved, relaxed and met with others.

The Romans visited the public baths every day, on feast days and even on holidays. The main purpose of the baths was a way for the Romans to cleanse themselves. People would generally engage in different physical activities. They covered themselves in oil, which they then removed along with dirt and sweat with a tool called a strigi.

There is a small fee to enter the public bath. The poor could pay to go. Sometimes a politician or emperor paid for the public to go. The bathrooms were divided according to gender within the building. Each sex contained three basins: one hot, one warm, and one cool.

The three pools were given the names: caldarium, tepidarium and frigidarium. Often there was a steam bath. They often included an outdoor gym where men entertained various ball games and activities. The dressing room was popular as an apodyterium.

Here is a list of the rooms:

Palaestra: Here people could exercise, like lifting weights, before taking a shower.

Apodyterium: This is where visitors could change their costumes before using the main bathhouse facilities.

Caldarium: This room was generally the hottest.

Tepidarium: This room was generally warm and had a pool of heated water. In the tepidarium, visitors applied oil and scraped it off with a strigil.

Frigidarium: That was the room with the cold temperatures. The frigidarium was generally a bathing pool of cold, fresh water where visitors could bathe and cool off to get clean.

You can also find other facilities depending on how and where the baths were built, such as toilets, libraries, gardens and even massage therapy rooms!

Rich people sometimes built their own private baths in their homes. These could be quite expensive because they had to pay the government for the water they used. Despite this, they sometimes went to the public baths to talk and meet people.

They used the aqueducts to bring fresh water to the public baths. The Romans built underfloor heating called a hypocaust to heat the water with the help of fire.

Let's look at the list of Roman public baths:

1. Thermen of Caracalla – Rome, Italy

  • It was named after the Roman Emperor Caracalla (AD 188-217), the man responsible for completing the baths.
  • The second largest bathing facility ever built in the Roman Empire.
  • It was almost 40 meters high
  • The baths had a volume of 8 million liters

2. Baths of Diocletian - Rome, Italy

  • They were built during the reign of Emperor Diocletian
  • It had a limit of almost 3,000 bathers
  • Today part of the bathing complex has been converted into a church called Santa Maria Degli Angeli, Dei Martiri.

3. Roman Baths - Bath, England

  • It was built in the first decades of Roman rule in Britain.
  • It is one of the most famous tourist attractions in the region
  • It is visited by over 1 million visitors every year.

4. Kaiserthermen Trier: Trier, Germany

  • They have a limit of around 75,000 and 100,000
  • They were among the largest baths built outside of Rome.
  • Only part of the complex survives today.

5. Cluny Thermal Baths: Paris, France

  • Thermes de Cluny are other thermal baths in present-day Paris.
  • The remains of today make up about 1/3 of the original bathing complex.
  • Part of this complex has been combined with a modern attraction called "Musée national du Moyen Age".

6. Baths of Antoninus: Tunis, Tunisia

  • They were the largest Roman bathhouse built on the African continent.
  • It was erected in what is now the capital of Tunisia.
  • The baths were built during the reign of Antoninus Pius
  • The remains of the baths are part of the archaeological site of Carthage, a part that was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in early 1979.

7. Roman Baths of Maximinus: Braga, Portugal

  • It was built in Braga in northwestern Portugal.
  • The original version of the complex was built in the second half of the 1st century BC. It was completely renovated in the 3rd century AD and a theater was also added nearby.
  • It was built on a hill in the city

8. Baths of Ancyra: Ankara, Turkey

  • The Baths of Ancyra were built in what is now the city of Ankara, the capital of Turkey.
  • This magnificent bathing complex was built in the early 3rd century AD during the reign of Emperor Caracalla.

9. At the thermal baths: Maastricht, Netherlands

  • "Op de Thermen" means translated into English "Up on the Thermen".
  • It was discovered between 1963 and 1965
  • The complex is about 40 meters

10. Roman Baths: Varna, Bulgaria

  • It was built at the end of the 2nd century.
  • It was damaged in the late 3rd century
  • It was the fourth largest Roman bath ever built in Europe

11. Trajan's Therms: Rom Italien

  • It arose at the beginning of the 2nd century.
  • It included a gym and two libraries, one in Latin and one in Greek.

12. Roman Berytus: Beirut, Lebanon

(Video) Fun facts about ancient Rome daily life

  • It was found out in the late 1960s
  • It is now a famous attraction in the city.
  • The baths were damaged by an earthquake in AD 551.

13. Taurinbäder: Civitavecchia, Italy

  • The baths were named after a town called "Aquae Tauri".
  • The complex functioned from 86 BC. until the 6th century

14. Badenweiler Baths – Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany

The remains of this complex are a major tourist attraction in southwest Germany.

At the end of the 18th century, the bathing facility was explored again.

15. Hammam Essalihine - El Hamma, Algeria

It still functions as a swimming pool today.

Hamman Essalihine translates into English as "The Bath of the Righteous".

Roman temples were one of the main features of Roman culture. They were used with the aim of worshiping gods in Roman religion. They are considered testimony to the amazing architectural achievements of the ancient Romans. The Latin word temple means a holy place.

The Romans worshiped many gods and goddesses. They wanted holy places for each god to worship, so they built many temples. The Romans were impressed by the Etruscans and Greek architecture. Temples were commonly decorated with high quality marble sculptures or reliefs.

Temples had a small number of windows and were very dark. There were two main types. The first type is classic - like those in Rome, with a large white entrance and many columns. The second is Romano-British - a mixture of Roman and Celtic moods, with a corridor through a central shrine room.

It consists of the main room called the cella. It contained an image of the god they worshiped. It could also include sacred objects such as an altar, statue, pool of water, fire, or tree.

Let's look at the list of Roman temples:

1. Temple of Augustus and Livia

It was dedicated to Augustus and his wife Livia

2. Temple of Zeus in Aizanoi

The Temple of Zeus is the best preserved Roman temple in all of Anatolia

3. Dougga Capitol

It is located in Dougga in northern Tunisia

It was dedicated to the three main Roman gods: Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.

4. Garni Temple

It was dedicated to the Roman sun god Helios

It was created by the Armenian king Trdates I in the 1st century AD.

It was completely damaged by an earthquake in 1679.

It was renovated in the 1970s.

5. Temple of Augustus in Pula

It was dedicated to the first Roman Emperor Augustus.

Later the temple was converted into a church

During World War II it was badly damaged

6. Temple des Sbeitla Forums

It is located in west-central Tunisia

The three Roman temples are placed on one side of a wide, almost square forum

7. Square House

It was 16 B.C. founded

It is one of the best preserved Roman temples in the world.

it was converted into a church in the 4th century

8. Palmyra

It is one of Syria's most famous tourist attractions

It contains the great Temple of Bel, the monumental arch and the colonnade, which once consisted of 1,500 Corinthian columns.

9. Pantheon

It was built in 126 AD as a temple to all the Roman gods.

It was converted into a Romanesque church in the 7th century.

It consists of a large circular entrance with three tiers of large Corinthian granite columns.

10. Baalbek

It includes three temples: Jupiter, Bacchus and Venus

The best-preserved temple in the town is the Temple of Bacchus, built in 150 AD.

The ancient Roman temple was dedicated to Bacchus, the Roman god of wine.

11. Temple des Forum Boarium

It was founded in the second century B.C. built

It consisted of two temples, the Temple of Hercules Victor and the Temple of Portunus

12. Venus Genetrix

It was made in Djemila, Algeria

This unrestored ruin still has its original walls and columns complete

Roman housing was divided into two types. The common Roman citizens lived in apartment complexes called "Insulae", while the wealthy and influential Romans lived in large and comfortable complexes called "Domus". Many wealthy Romans also got comfortable apartments in the country called "villa".

Insulae are blocks of flats where ordinary people live. They were usually five to seven stories high. It held from 30 to 50 people. They were of low quality but they have fresh water and sanitation. The individual apartments usually consist of two small rooms.

They were made of wood, mudbrick and later primitive concrete. A typical insula was built over a courtyard with a block on three sides of the courtyard and a wall on the fourth side to protect the occupants from intruders. They used the yard for cooking, washing, and socializing.

(Video) 15 CRAZIEST Things About Ancient Rome

A typical insulae contained six or seven apartments. Individual apartments usually consist of two small rooms. The ground floor of the insulae generally housed shops and stores, opening onto the street. The upper floors were used as apartments. The larger apartments were also at the bottom, the smallest at the top.

The attic apartments were not supplied with water or heating. These buildings were generally damaged by fire. Many insulae were not very well built. Historians are certain that at the time of the great Roman fire, 42,000 or more insulae were found in the city of Rome alone.

Domus are larger and more affluent residential complexes where wealthy and influential Romans lived. A typical domus contained a door near the street that opened into an entrance hall leading to a courtyard called the "atrium". Other rooms such as bedrooms and kitchen may be on the sides of the atrium.

The atrium was the most important part of the house. There the guests were received. It often had few pieces of furniture to give the effect of a large room. Behind the atrium we could find the office. Often there was a backyard.

The atrium either had no roof or a hole in the roof that served as a skylight. It also had an opening for rainwater to fall and be collected in a tank in the center of the atrium floor. The Romans decorated their rooms with colored plaster walls and mosaics.

Let's see some rooms in a typical Roman house:

manufacturing

Atrium: An open space where guests were received.

Tablinum: The office dedicated to the master of the house.

Triclinium: The dining room. This was often the most amazing room in the house and decorated to impress the guests who dined there.

Cubiculum: The bedroom.

Culina: The kitchen.

A Roman villa was a Roman country house built for the upper class. They had numerous rooms, including servants' quarters, exercise rooms, courtyards, baths, pools, storerooms, and gardens. The villas were larger than domus as the landscape offered more space for the construction of houses.

There were two types of villas. The Villa Urbana was a rural place near Rome. The villa rustica was a farm country, like the later English country house. It was inhabited by servants who tended the land.

sculptures

Roman sculpture played an important role in everyday Roman life. Many artists designed sculptures that were placed across the country. There was even an elementary school dedicated to sculpture. Many sculptors have had their art recognized in the Aphrodisias Sculpting School.

A typical sculpture could have described every part of the subject, from the head to the entire body. Roman artists often made sculptures out of marble, stone and clay. They also used concrete invented by the ancient Romans.

The wealthy Romans decorated their large houses with sculptures. Other popular subjects for sculpture included gods and goddesses, popular athletes, philosophers, and successful generals. Sculptures that only describe the head were popular as busts.

painting

The Romans loved paintings. The walls of the houses of wealthy Romans were often decorated with paintings. They preferred to decorate rooms with paintings because they made the rooms appear larger. Most of these paintings have been ruined over time.

Her pictures often showed scenes from everyday life and sometimes cultivated special occasions. Some painted scenes showed important Roman battles and other historical events.

ceramics

Roman pottery was also used to express works of art. Pottery was produced in large quantities. They mainly made pottery for utilitarian reasons. They were famous throughout the ancient Roman Empire and even beyond.

Pottery also depicted important figures and scenes of Roman life. Some artists have made mosaics by working with small pieces of glass or stone to create a larger image. It was split into fine and coarse ware. The coarse ones were constantly used for everyday activities, while the fine ones served as serving vessels.

relief

Relief is another commonly used art form. They were used to document significant events that happened throughout Roman history. This is when a scene has been effectively carved into the stone, usually as part of a building or as a work in its own right. Trajan's Column in Rome, Italy is one of the most notable examples of relief art.

The Romans wanted their art to be as effective and valuable as possible. They worked out many new techniques for buildings of all kinds such as Roman roads, Roman arches and aqueducts. Roman architecture is famous for a variety of reasons including arches, amphitheatres, domes, aqueducts, baths, temples, blocks of flats and houses.

Agriculture in Ancient Rome

The ancient Romans lived on many very fertile soils. They lived close to the land. Farming in ancient Rome was one of the most important and recognized professions. Wealthy Romans had big onesfarmswith many employees, while poor farmers had smaller farms and worked the fields themselves.

Establishments were divided into 3 types. Iugera was the standard unit for land surveying. The first category of farm sizes includes small farms ranging from 18 to 108 jugera.

The second category is the medium farm sizes, ranging from 800 to 500 Iugera. The third category were the large lands, also known as latifundia, measured at more than 500 iugera.

Over 90% of the ancient Romans lived in the countryside and the most common occupation there was a farmer. The peasants were very hard workers, and they got up before dawn and worked until dark. They worked hard to prepare the fields, plant food, pick food and set up other posts on the farm.

There were almost three staple foods on almost every Roman table, bread, oil and wine. The most common crop of ancient Roman farmers was wheat, which can be made into bread and other grain-based foods. Grapes were other things grown in Roman society.

The wheat was plowed with a tool called an ard plow, a very heavy stick pulled across the fields by an ox. Later a share was used with the other agricultural implements. It was a tool used to mix soil.

The Romans also used a tool called the Punic Cart. It was used when rolling over the grain to hold it down and make it easier to harvest. The Romans used an early heating system called a hypocaust to speed up the drying process of grain.

Ancient Roman farmers skimmed milk from cows. They also employed mules and oxen to perform heavy duties on their farmland. They got cheese from sheep and leather from goats.

The ancient Roman farmers faced many problems, including unstable weather conditions, wartime events on farmland, which often resulted in the destruction of agricultural products, a decrease in soil fertility, and loss of human life. They also faced the problems of slaves, who often rebelled against their masters' orders.

Goat leather and skins were used for other materials. Farmers practiced beekeeping for sugar production and a certain percentage of Roman farmers raised snails for special meals.

Ancient Roman farmers practiced 4 types of farm management systems. The first was that farming was done by the farm owners and their family members. The second type was that farming was done by tenant farmers and farm owners. They share the agricultural yields. The third type was that farming was done by slaves owned by nobles and overseen by slave managers.

Roman clothing

The style of Roman dress was influenced by the ancient Greeks and over time evolved into integrated styles and costumes from across the Roman Empire. The Romans used different types of fabrics and materials to make clothing. Wool was the most commonly used fabric. It's strong, sturdy and comfortable. It's also good against the cold. Women often spun the wool of their households, except in wealthy families where a slave was in charge of the task.

Sometimes clothing was made from rare materials such as linen from Egypt, cotton from India and silk from China. Silk was a very expensive material to buy, so it was reserved for the wealthy Romans. Cotton was often used to make the tunics of the wealthy Romans. Leather from pigs or sheep was most commonly used to make shoes in Roman times.

The very early Romans wore a garment called the toga. It was an important item. The colors of the togas had meaning. A toga might be edged with purple for high rank. Emperors were the only Romans who could wear fully purple togas. In Rome, clothing also reflected status and practical needs. A red-lined toga often showed shame and disgrace, and was often worn in exile or before an execution.

The Romans began to wear tunics in place of the toga. A tunic, called a chilton, looks like a long t-shirt that falls just above the knees. It can be either sleeveless or short-sleeved. A cloak was also worn by Roman men over their tunic.

Summer tunics were made from linen while winter tunics were made from wool. They also wore what appeared to be pants during the colder months. The Romans invented socks to wear in colder times. Roman men wore toga pulla when mourning the death of a loved one. It was colored completely black.

Roman men wore rings on each finger and even bracelets. Hairstyles changed over time. At times, long hair with beards and mustaches were fashionable. At other times, it was fashionable to be clean-shaven with short hair. Sometimes men even curled and braided their hair.

Roman women wore long tunics that completely covered their bodies. It was the most important garment worn by peasants and unmarried women. Over the tunic, some Roman women wore a long piece of woven linen called a "stole." It was a long, pleated dress, held up by belts that reached to her ankles.

The stole was either short-sleeved or long-sleeved, depending on the season. Only married women wore a stole, unmarried women simply wore a tunic.

In winter, Roman women wore a shawl made of wool to keep them warm, called a "palla".

Women's clothing was often much more colorful than men's. Women from wealthy families also wore garments made from silk and other expensive imported fabrics. Wealthy Roman women took great care of their jewelry, hair, and makeup; Many had slaves to help them get ready.

Ancient Roman women loved ornate necklaces, pins, earrings, bracelets and rings. Women often dyed their hair, usually golden red. They used hair extensions to make their hair thicker or longer. They also liked pearls.

Roman clothing for children was very simple. Boys wore a knee-length tunic and cloak when it was cold. In Roman times, children wore a "bulla," a special medallion around their necks that was given to them from an early age. Girls wore the amulet until they were married and boys until they were sixteen.

On a boy's sixteenth or seventeenth birthday, the boy became a citizen. They celebrate the day. The boy dressed in a white tunic, which his father adapted. The day ended with a dinner party hosted by the father in honor of the new Roman citizen.

Roman slaves wore very modest clothing. Their clothing depended on the task they were performing. House slaves were given basic clothing such as a loincloth and cloak. However, educated and skilled slaves were provided with better clothing.

Romans usually wore leather shoes. Roman men and women typically wore the same type of shoes. There were two types of shoes worn by the Romans. The first was the calceus. They were open sandals.

The second type were the Soleae. It was a full shoe with a closed toe. The color and style also indicated a person's social standing. Senators or patricians wore red shoes.

The calcei was a soft leather covered toe street shoe worn by most Romans. They were made by attaching strips of leather to a sturdy leather or cork base.

Wealthy Romans would sometimes have a slave wear their sandals so they could put them on when entering a building. The Romans could also wear slippers indoors.

Roman soldiers wore the caliga - a type of military boot that looked a bit like sandals. They had nails and were incredibly durable. This was necessary for the long marches that the soldiers had to make every day.

Ancient Roman government

Ancient Rome experienced three different types of government. The first was the kingdom. The second type was the republic. Finally, the last type was the Empire.

When Rome began it was aKingdom.Early Rome was ruled by a succession of kings for about 200 years. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom began with the founding of the city, which traditionally dates back to 753 BC. and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the founding of the republic around 509 BC.

(Video) Ancient Rome for Kids

As Rome grew and began to expand, they needed a reason why their king should be in charge of other villages. They invented the myth of Romulus and Remus. The Romans believed in it. Some kings were good while others were bad.

The last king of Rome was a particularly bad king. Tarquin the Proud was a tyrant and the people hated him. In the history of Rome, it is not clear how the ancient Romans got rid of Tarquin. Then the Romans became free and began a new type of government.

King Romuluscreated the Senate. According to legend, there were six other kings:Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marzio, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius und Tarquinius Proudus. After Romulus' death, the Roman Senate could not elect a new king. Kings had absolute power.

Finally, the Curiate Assembly was allowed to elect a new king of Rome. They chose Numa Pompilius. Numa, unlike Romulus, was opposed to war and thought the best path for Rome was peace. Numa is honored for bringing religion into the average Roman everyday life.

royal elections

Whenever a king died, Rome entered a period ofInterregnum. the Senate was responsible for finding a new king. The Senate would convene and appoint one of its own members - theInterrex- to serve for a period of five days for a single purpose, which was to appoint the next king of Rome.

At the end of the five-day term, the Interrex would elect another senator for another five-day term. This process would continue until a new king was elected. Once the interrex has found a suitable candidate for kingship, the Senate reviews the candidate. If the candidate passes, he is elected king.

There were two other acts yet to take place before they attained full royal authority and power. First, it was necessary to seek the divine will of the gods regarding his appointment. Traditionally, a meteorologist had to announce that he had been given the gods' approval.

The second act granted the king dominion over the kingdom. The assembly's prior vote only determined who would become king, but did not give him the necessary power. Accordingly, the king himself proposed to the assembly a law granting him dominion, and the assembly would grant it by voting in favor of the law.

The RomanRepubliclasted for 500 years in ancient Rome. was led by a large group of men. They called themselves members of the Senate. The Romans elected the consuls. The consuls are the two chief senators. Then the consuls chose the other senators from among the able patricians.

Senators were elected for one year only. This system worked well. Senators applied the old laws equally to all citizens. They also added new laws. One of those laws was that you were innocent until guilty of a crime. Another law provided that every citizen had the right to challenge his accusers in court.

They engraved the laws on metal plaques and placed them in the forum in Rome to ensure all citizens knew the laws. These laws were called the Twelve Tables because there were twelve distinct sections. It was about crime, property, and family matters like marriage and inheritance.

Over time, Rome had problems that the Senate could not solve. One of the problems was that there was no money to pay the military to pave streets and do the many jobs they did. They kept raising taxes, but people ran out of money to give.

In addition, Rome suffered from corruption among elected officials. Senators frequently began fighting, sometimes violently. crime was terrible. It was not safe to walk the streets of Rome. Things quickly got out of hand.

As Rome expanded, its military leaders began to have more power, in part because control of the Roman army was so remote from decision-makers in the Senate. 45 B.C. BC Julius Caesar took over the Roman Republic and made himself supreme dictator.

Here is a list of some titles and their responsibilities:

titleJob Responsibilities
The ConsulWas at the head of the Roman Republic. Was a very powerful position. – could veto if they disagreed. They decided when to go to war, how much tax to collect, and what laws to apply.
senators– advised the consuls. – were selected for life.
Plebeian Rat– was also called the People’s Assembly. - Through them the common people, the plebeians, could elect their own leaders and judges, make laws and hold courts.
grandstands– were the representatives of the plebeian council. – could veto laws passed by the Senate.
Governor– ruled the country or province. - would be in charge of the local Roman army - would also be responsible for collecting taxes. Governors were also called proconsuls.
Aedile- was a city official - was responsible for the maintenance of public buildings and folk festivals.
Censor- counted the citizens - kept track of the census - had some duties to keep up public morale - to take care of public finances.
The Constitutionwas rather a set of guidelines and principles passed down from generation to generation, providing for separate branches of government and balances of power.

ThatRoman Empirewas born. This new leadership was a dictatorship. Julius Caesar's adopted son, Augustus, became the new head of government. Augustus knew that the people would never accept a king. He wanted to be more powerful than a consul. So he called himself Emperor.

Although the Roman Empire kept the Senate and other positions in place, the Emperor was in absolute control, and his word could not be denied no matter how his people felt or voted. With the army in full control, it was almost impossible for an emperor to be overthrown.

There were good points in going to an empire. Women gained power. Crime has been reduced. They set up welfare programs to help the poor. They built huge entertainment centers and admission was free.

However, the Roman Empire failed, as had the Roman Republic before it. It was mainly for the same reasons. Bribery and corruption were widespread among elected officials. They have imposed excessive taxes on the citizens.

There was little money in the till. There was no money to pay the military, roads were derelict and other problems the government could not or could not solve.

Eventually, the Roman leaders decided to divide Rome into two empires: the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire ruled the city of Rome. The Eastern Roman Empire was ruled from Constantinople, now Istanbul in Turkey. The Eastern Roman Empire became known as Byzantium or the Byzantine Empire.

The Roman Empire remained a powerful force for another 300 years before beginning to decline. After the reign of Constantine, the empire fell early in the fifth century. Many historians mark 476 as the year the empire ended and the Middle Ages began.

Here is a list of Roman emperors with the dates:

1st century AD

  • Augustus (31 v. Chr. - 14 n. Chr.)
  • Tiberius (14-37 AD)
  • Caligula (37–41 n. Chr.)
  • Claudius (41–54 AD)
  • Nero (54–68 n. Chr.)
  • Galba (68–69 AD)
  • Otho (January–April 69 n. Chr.)
  • Aulus Vitellius (July–December 69 AD)
  • Vespasian (69–79 n. Chr.)
  • Titus (79–81 n. Chr.)
  • Domitian (81–96 n. Chr.)
  • Nerva (96–98 n. Chr.)

2nd century AD

  • Trajan (98–117 n. Chr.)
  • Hadrian (117–138 n. Chr.)
  • Antoninus Pius (138–161 n. Chr.)
  • Marcus Aurelius (161–180 n. Chr.)
  • Lucius Verus (161–169 AD)
  • Commodus (177–192 n. Chr.)
  • Publius Helvius Pertinax (January - March 193 AD)
  • Marcus Didius Severus Julianus (März - June 193 AD)
  • Septimius Severus (193–211 AD)

3rd century AD

  • Caracalla (198–217 n. Chr.)
  • Publius Septimius Geta (209–211 AD)
  • Makrinus (217–218 AD)
  • Elagabal (218–222 n. Chr.)
  • Severus Alexander (222–235 n. Chr.)
  • Maximinus (235–238 AD)
  • Gordian I (March–April 238 AD)
  • Gordian II (March–April 238 AD)
  • Pupienus Maximus (April 22 - July 29, 238 AD)
  • Balbinus (April 22 - July 29 238 n. Chr.)
  • Gordian III (238–244 n. Chr.)
  • Philip (AD 244–249)
  • Decius (249–251 AD)
  • Hostile (AD 251)
  • Gallus (251–253 n. Chr.)
  • Aemilian (253 AD)
  • Baldrian (253–260 n. Chr.)
  • Gallienus (253–268 AD)
  • Claudius II the Gothic (AD 268–270)
  • Quintillus (270 n. Chr.)
  • Aurelian (270–275 n. Chr.)
  • Tacitus (275–276 n. Chr.)
  • Florian (June–September 276 AD)
  • Probus (276–282 AD)
  • Charus (AD 282–283)
  • Numerical (AD 283–284)
  • Carinus (283–285 AD)
  • Diocletian (East, AD 284–305; divided the empire into East and West)
  • Maximian (West, AD 286–305)

4th century AD

  • Constantius I. (West, AD 305–306)
  • Galerius (East, AD 305–311)
  • Severus (West, AD 306–307)
  • Maxentius (West, 306–312 AD)
  • Constantine I (AD 306–337; reunification of the empire)
  • Galerius Valerius Maximinus (310–313 AD)
  • Licinius (308–324 AD)
  • Constantine II (AD 337–340)
  • Constantius II. (337-361 AD)
  • Constantius I (337–350 AD)
  • Gallus Caesar (351–354 AD)
  • Julian (361–363 n. Chr.)
  • Jupiter (363–364 n. Chr.)
  • Valentinian I (West, AD 364–375)
  • Valens (East, AD 364–378)
  • Gratian (Westen, 367–383 n. Chr.; Co-Kaiser mit Valentinian I.)
  • Valentinian II (AD 375–392; crowned as a child)
  • Theodosius I (East, AD 379–392; East and West, AD 392–395)
  • Arcadius (east, AD 383–395, co-emperor; AD 395–402, sole emperor)
  • Magnus Maximus (West, AD 383–388)
  • Honorius (West, AD 393–395, co-emperor; AD 395–423, sole emperor)

5th century AD

  • Theodosius II (Osten, 408–450 AD)
  • Constantius III (West, AD 421, Mitkaiser)
  • Valentinian III (West, AD 425–455)
  • Marcian (Osten, 450–457 AD)
  • Petronius Maximus (West, March 17 – May 31, AD 455)
  • Ancestor (West, 455–456 AD)
  • Majorian (Westen, 457–461 n. Chr.)
  • Libius Severus (West, AD 461–465)
  • Anthemius (West, AD 467–472)
  • Olybrius (West, April–November AD 472)
  • Glycerius (West, AD 473–474)
  • Julius Nepos (Westen, 474–475 AD)
  • Romulus Augustulus (West, AD 475–476)
  • Leo I (East, AD 457–474)
  • Leo II (East, 474 AD)
  • Zeno (East, AD 474–491)

Roman gods and goddesses

The Romans believed in many gods. The Roman gods are actually inspired by the Greek gods. Most of the gods and goddesses worshiped by the Romans were Greek gods and goddesses with different names. The Olympians are a group of 12 gods who ruled after the fall of OlympusTitans.All Olympians are related in some way.

Early Roman mythology says that Rome was founded by two twin gods - Romulus and Remus. Romulus and Remus were raised by a she-wolf. They wanted to found a new city. They argued about where the new city should be built. Eventually Romulus killed Remus. So in 753 B.C. the city of Rome was founded.

Many ancient Romans had shrines in their homes to worship gods. The ancient Romans all believed that the gods were divine. They believed that if you had good relations with the gods, they would be kind to you.

Here is a list of Romansgods and goddesses:

  • Apollo: the god of the sun, music, archery, poetry and truth. He was a son of Jupiter. Apollo and Diana were twins. He fell in love with Cassandra.
  • Aurora: The goddess of dawn
  • Bacchus: the god of wine and civilisation, of justice and tranquillity. He escaped the pirates and met his true love.
  • Bellona: The goddess of war
  • Caelus: The primeval god of heaven and theology, iconography and literature
  • Ceres: The goddess of the harvest and Juno's other sister. Discover what the ancients thought was the reason for the seasons. was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Demeter. We got the name for muesli from the name Ceres.
  • Amor: The son of Venus, the goddess of love. son of Venus; carried a bow and arrow and shot people to make them fall in love. It wasn't untilAmorfell in love that he found true happiness.
  • Cybele: The goddess of the earth, nature, mountains and wild animals
  • Diana: the goddess of the hunt and animals. She was also the twin sister of Apollo. It was taken from the Greek goddess Artemis. Her symbols included the moon, the snake, and the bow and arrow.
  • Faunus: The god of the forest, fields and plains
  • Fortuna: The goddess of fortune
  • Janus: The god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, doors, passages and endings
  • Juno: The goddess of marriage and the protector of women. She was also Jupiter's wife. She watched over all the women of Rome. She was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Hera. She was considered the protector of Rome.
  • Mars: The god of war. He was Jupiter's son. He was the most fearsome god besides Jupiter. No one liked Mars very much, not even their own brothers and sisters. He was tall and handsome and cruel and vain. The only person who even liked Mars was Venus
  • mercury: The god of shopkeepers, merchants, travellers, goods transporters, thieves and swindlers. messenger of the gods. He was another son of Jupiter.This job enabled him to be informed about almost everything. There was warmth around Mercury. The other gods trusted him
  • Minerva: The goddess of wisdom, medicine, commerce, handicrafts, poetry, the arts and war. She is known as Athena in Greek mythology. She was born from the forehead of her father Jupiter. She outsmarted her famous uncle, the mighty Neptune. She descended from the Greek goddess Athena.
  • Neptune: The god of the sea and earthquakes. He was the brother of Jupiter, king of the gods. was very powerful. He was also quite moody. People were afraid of Neptune, especially those people who settled along the coast. He descended from the Greek god Poseidon. He was also the patron of horses. Neptune's weapon was a large trident.
  • Nyx: The primordial goddess of the night
  • Pluto: The god of the underworld. God of death and riches under the earth. He was Jupiter's brother.
  • Proserpina: The goddess of fertility, wine and agriculture
  • Pompom: The goddess of fertile abundance
  • Saturn: The god of procreation, dissolution, abundance, wealth, periodic renewal, liberation and time. He was another brother of Jupiter.
  • Spes: The goddess of hope
  • Terra: The goddess of the earth
  • Venus: The goddess of love and beauty. She didn't want to start the Trojan War, but it happened anyway. She was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.
  • Veritas: The goddess of truth
  • Vesta: The goddess of the hearth, home and domestic life. The eternally burning flame in her temple represents the "hearth of Rome". She was Juno's sister. She watched over their homes and children.
  • Vulkan: The god of fire and blacksmiths. He was the son of Jupiter and Juno and the husband of Venus. He made the first clay woman. He named her Pandora. He descended from the Greek god Hephaestus. The word volcano comes from the name Vulcan.

Here is a list of Roman gods versus Greek gods:

Roman name of GodGreek name of Goddescription
JupiterZeusHe was the master of the gods and the chief god of the Romans. In his hand he held lightning bolts that he could hurl from the sky.
JunoHeraShe was the wife of Jupiter, the goddess of women and fertility. Her symbols were pomegranate and a peacock.
MarsAresHe was the god of war, the strongest and most fearsome god besides Jupiter.
VenusAphroditeShe was the goddess of love and beauty.
MinervaAtheneShe was the goddess of wisdom, learning, handicrafts and industry. Her symbol was the owl.
NeptunePoseidonHe was the mighty god of the sea. His symbol was the trident.
CeresDemeterShe was the goddess of the harvest, always depicted with a bundle of grain.
VulkanHephaistosHe was the smith of the gods and a god of the underworld. If he stoked his furness too much, volcanoes could erupt. He was the god of blacksmiths and volcanoes.
DianaArtemisShe was the goddess of the hunt and the goddess of the moon.
mercuryHermesHe was the messenger of the gods. The wings on his helmet and sandals enabled him to travel very quickly to wherever a god sent him. He was the god of travelers and traders.
Vestathe gutShe was the goddess of the hearth and the home and was very important to the Romans. In her temple there was always a flame burning like in the hearth of Rome.
ApolloApolloGod of music, healing, light and truth. He moved the sun across the sky

Antikes RomGeography

Rome is one of the most powerful civilizations whose empire ruled Europe for over 1,000 years. It extends from 27 B.C. to the 5th century AD There were many cities and countries that were important places in the geography of the Roman Empire, such as Constantinople, Athens and Milan.

Various key geographic features on the Italian peninsula provided opportunities for Roman civilization to thrive. Rome began as a small village on the Tiber. It was an excellent site, with seven hills providing a natural defensive barrier.

During Rome's most powerful stages, it included Albania, Austria, Algeria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Egypt, England, France, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Luxembourg, Moldova, Morocco , Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Wales.

The Tiber was a source of fresh water and fertile soil needed to support human, animal, and crop development in Rome. However, there was still enough distance between Rome and the sea to evade the attack. Romans were able to conquer France on horseback within days.

Rome is east of the river. It begins in the Apennines and empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The river provided easy transportation. Rome's imports and exports could flow in and out of the city easily. In ancient times there were enemies everywhere. They founded their city on top of a hill. They walled it.

Rome was protected by two mountain ranges, the Alps and the Apennines. The Alps provided a roadblock, forcing invaders to move through narrow passages that allowed the Romans to prepare and attack. The Apennines divided the peninsula in two and provided protection from invasion from the east.

Since Rome was lost to the Mediterranean, this helped them conquer new lands. They managed to build a navy that helped them conquer neighboring territories. They eventually took control of all the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

Here is a map of the Roman Empire at its height:

Ancient Roman timeline

The Roman Empire was one of the largest and most influential civilizations in world history. Ancient Rome existed for more than 1,200 years and once controlled much of the known world, including Europe, North Africa, and western Asia. It was a kingdom for about 200 years, a republic for about 500 years, and an empire for about 500 years.

Ancient Rome was founded in 753 BC. founded. by the sons of Mars, the god of war. Here is a timeline of events covering 1200 years of growth and culture. It ranges from 753 B.C. until his last days in the 15th century CE.

  • 753 v. u. Z.-The god of war named Mars gave birth to twin sons namedRomulus and Remus. They founded the city. Romulus named the city Rome after he killed his brother Remus and until his death in 715 BC. became ruler. For the next 240 years, ancient Rome was ruled by kings.
  • 715 v. u. Z.:Numa Pompilius became ruler. During his reign, the priestly offices and the Roman Senate were created.
  • 673 v. u. Z: Tullus Hostilius war der König Er baute das Senatsgebäude namens Curia Hostilia.
  • 617 to 578 BC CE: During this period, Ancient Rome was ruled by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. He built the Circus Maximus, installed the first sewage systems and conducted the first census.
  • 534 to 509 BC BC:The last Roman king at that time was called Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. He was instrumental in building the temple named Jupiter Optimus Maximus.
  • 509 v. u. Z.:Rome becomes a republic. the king was overthrown. A new system of government was installed, which included a constitution, a complex republican government, and elected officials called senators, who were elected by the people. A year later, the office of Pontifex Maximus, or High Priest, was created.
  • 496 v. u. Z.:Ancient Rome was victorious against the Latin League after defeating the League at the Battle of Lake Regillus.
  • 451 v. u. Z.:ThatTwelve tablesof Roman Laws were published by Decemviri.
  • 447 v. u. Z.:The People's Assembly was formed. Two Quaestors were elected for the first time. Quaestors oversaw the treasury, armies, financial affairs, and army officials.
  • 445 v. Chr: Marriage between plebeians and patricians was permitted.
  • 396 v. u. Z.:Ancient Rome defeated the Etruscans and Roman soldiers got their first paycheck.
  • 390 v. u. Z.:Ancient Rome was defeated by the Gauls at the Battle of Allia. The Gauls would sack ancient Rome.
  • 366 v. Chr.:Lucius Sextius Sextinus was elected the first non-patrician consul.
  • 283 v. u. Z.:The ancient Romans defeated the Etruscans and a Gaulish tribe called the Boii at the Battle of Lake Vadimo.
  • 267 v. u. Z.:The number of Quaestors has been increased from four to six.
  • 264 v. u. Z.:The First Punic War began with Carthage. The war ended in 241 BC. with the defeat of Carthage. Corsica, Sardinia and Carthage became the first ancient Roman provinces.
  • 224 v. u. Z.:The ancient Roman army defeated Gallic at the Battle of Telamon and a year later they defeated the Gauls again.
  • 218 v. u. Z.:Hannibal invades Italy. Hannibal leads the Carthaginian army in his famous crossing of the Alps to attack Rome. The Second Punic War began against Carthage.
  • 216 v. u. Z.:Hannibal led Carthage across the Alps and invaded the city of Rome. The old RomanHeerwas defeated at the Battle of Cannae.
  • 202 v. u. Z.:Scipip Africanus Major invaded Africa and defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama, ending the Second Punic War.
  • 149 v. u. Z.:The Third Punic War began against Carthage.
  • 146 v. u. Z.:The Third Punic War ended when Scipio Aemilianus Africanus, also known as Scipio Africanus the Younger, destroyed the cities of Carthage and Corinth. After the destruction of ancient Greece, the ancient Romans began to adopt ancient Greek culture into their society.
  • 133 v. u. Z: Tiberius Gracchus agreed to the agrarian reform and was killed.
  • 107 v. u. Z: Gaius Marius was elected consul. He introduced the Marian reforms of the military. These reforms resulted in a standing army and the conscription of non-proprietors into the army.
  • 73 v. u. Z.:Spartacus, who was a gladiator, led a slave rebellion. Spartacus was born in 71 BC. killed.
  • 67 v. u. Z.:Pompey eliminated pirates from the Mediterranean. He was also the first ancient Roman general to reach the Euphrates, securing new colonies along the way, increasing the annual income of the Roman Empire.
  • 59 v. u. Z.:The First Triumvirate was formed by the alliance of three generals named Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey.
  • 45 v. u. Z: Julius Caesar became the first dictator of ancient Rome after defeating Pompey. This signals the end of the Roman Republic.
  • 44 v. u. Z.:Julius Caesar was assassinated by Marcus Brutus during the Ides of March. The Civil War began in ancient Rome.
  • 43 v. u. Z.:Octavian, Antony and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate.
  • 31 v. u. Z.:Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. A year later, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide and Egypt became a Roman colony.
  • 27 v. u. Z.:The Roman Empire began when Octavian changed his name to Caesar Augustus and became the first Roman Emperor.
  • 37 n. Chr.:Caligula was proclaimed emperor, and in 41 C.E. Claudius became emperor and invaded Britain in 43 C.E.
  • 54 u. Z.-Nero became emperor, and in 64 C.E. he allowed the city of Rome to be burned and blamed the Christians.
  • 80 n. Chr.:The Romans finished building the Colosseum, which could seat 50,000 spectators.
  • 117 n. Chr.:Hadrian became emperor. In 122, Hadrian's Wall was built in northern England to keep the barbarians out of the Roman Empire.
  • 161 n. Chr.:Marcus Aurelius was proclaimed emperor. He died in 180 C.E., marking the end of the Five Good Emperors.
  • 284 n. Chr.:Diocletian became emperor. In 293 CE Diocletian made Constantius I co-emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
  • 306 n. Chr.:Constantine I was proclaimed emperor. He converted to Christianity and made Constantinople the new capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE.
  • 380 n. Chr.:Emperor Theodosius I made Christianity the sole religion of the Roman Empire. In 395 C.E. he officially split the Roman Empire in half.
  • 410 n. Chr.:Rome was invaded and destroyed by Alaric I, and in 447 CE Attila the Hun crushed the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • 475 n. Chr.:Romulus Augustus was proclaimed emperor. A year later, the Western Roman Empire fell.
  • 533 n. Chr: Justinian I was proclaimed emperor and attempted to restore empire to the west.
  • 568 n. Chr.:The Lombards invaded Italy.

Ancient Roman achievements

The Romans were great in different aspects of life. They mastered architecture. They introduced new structures in different areas such as amphitheatres, theaters and stadiums.The Romans also mastered the technology. This was evidenced by the construction of aqueducts and paved roads.

Here is a list of the most important achievements of the ancient Romans:

  • Roman numerals have their origins in ancient Rome but survived for some purposes after the end of the Roman Empire.
  • The Romans introduced the first form of newspaper, called the Acta Diurna, or "Daily Acts." They often wrote news of current events on stones, papyri, or metal plates that were placed in public spaces.
  • The Romans developed the architectural arch to be able to build bridges, large buildings, and better aqueducts.
  • The Romans introduced the hypocaust system. It was like a heating mechanism, similar to modern central heating.
  • The Romans built aqueducts to bring fresh water from neighboring springs to their growing cities and towns.
  • The Romans developed accurate medical instruments that influenced many modern surgical instruments.
  • Romans. The Romans were the first to use concrete on a large scale.
  • The Romans used a combination of earth and gravel with bricks of hardened volcanic lava or granite, making roads immensely strong in all weathers
  • Julius Caesar designates the very first bound book - a collection of papyrus - to form a codex.
  • Julius Caesar introduceda new form of calendar systemwhich had 12 months and used a cycle of three years of 365 days followed by a year of 366 days (leap year).
  • Architects introduced the idea of ​​"the island“Apartments occupied whole blocks, around which streets flowed like water.
  • Emperor Augustus instituted the cursus publicus, a system by which messages and communications could be transmitted between provinces by means of horses and vehicles such as the horse-drawn cart called the Rhedæ.
  • The Romans introduced the concept of building domes.
  • They were also the first to build what is now known as the public toilet system.
  • The Romans built exceptionally beautiful bridges, some of which have become major tourist attractions in modern-day Italy and Spain.
  • The Romans built temples with Greek influence. They were used for religious and sacred ceremonies.
  • The Romans built cathedrals and basilicas in a manner similar to temples.
  • The Romans invented the Roman alphabets, which form the very basis of the English language, which is currently used by more than half of the world's population.
  • The Romans also overused, if not invented, the use of hydraulics. The Romans decided to use water to generate mechanical energy.
  • The ancient Romans formulated many of the laws that most countries still use today. They produced The Twelve Tables, laws written on metal tablets divided into twelve sections.
  • The Romans excelled at sculpting. Her use of sculpture in public places was unique.
  • The Romans also practiced pottery as a commercial skill, not an art form.
  • Constantine, the first Roman emperor to embrace and practice Christianity, legalized the worship of the Roman gods.
  • The Roman legal system included a criminal court system with attorneys and juries to allow those accused of a crime to defend themselves.
  • The Romans created a republic to prevent one person from gaining too much power.
  • The Romans created a senate of 300 men, which enacted laws and elected two consuls, who commanded the army and ran the day-to-day affairs of Rome.
  • The Romans believed in healthy living, so they made sure all Romans could get medical help.
  • During the Roman Empire, they developed welfare programs for the poor. They believed that all Romans have the right to food and shelter.
  • The Romans built libraries to store scrolls.
  • The Romans paid a lot of attention to education, even the poor learned to read and write.
  • The Romans introduced the propaganda campaigns. They issued coins with the Emperor's image on them.
  • Romans used satire in drama and literature.
  • The Romans created beautiful mosaics on floors and walls.
  • The Romans invented socks and improved footwear.
  • The Romans introduced many board and ball games, including knuckleball and hoop.

List of the most famous films about Ancient Rome:

  • Imperial Rome, Parts 1 and 2
  • ROME: The Rise and Fall of an Empire
  • Dear America Season 2 Episode 1: Cleopatra VII, Daughter of the Nile
  • Mysteries of the Dead: Lost Ships of Rome
  • Global Treasures: Pompeii, Italy
  • Roman feats of engineering
  • Four sisters in ancient Rome
  • A glimpse into teenage life in ancient Rome
  • Hands-On History: A Day in the Life... of a 10-Year-Old in Roman Britain
  • Zenturio (2010)
  • Cleopatra (1963)
  • Titus (1999)
  • Asterix and Obelix: Mansion of the Gods (2014)
  • Gladiator (2000)
  • Satyricon (1969)
  • Ben Hur (1959)
  • Where are you going (1951)
  • TIE: Barabbas (1962)
  • KRAWATTE: Cabiria (1914)
  • Spartacus (1960)
  • Julius Caesar (1953)
  • Life of Brian (1979)
  • The Fall of the Roman Empire (1964)
  • Rom (2005–2007)
  • Zenturio (2010)
  • The Last Legion (2007)
  • The Eagle (2011)
  • Attila (1991 TV Movie)
  • Warrior Queen (2003 TV Movie)
  • Druids (2001)
  • In the Name of the King: A Dungeon Siege Tale (2007)
  • The Journey Home (2004)
  • Spartacus (2010–2013)
  • Spartacus: Gods of the Arena (2011)
  • Caesar (2002)
  • Carthage on Fire (1960)
  • Romulus and the Sabines (1961)
  • Giants of Rome (1964)
  • Thunder of Battle (1964)

Some exciting facts about the Roman army

  • Roman soldiers played an important role in the military operations of the Roman Empire
  • Roman soldiers were extremely organized and well trained. They could march about 40 km a day.
  • Roman soldiers were also involved in the empire's building and engineering activities.
  • Many soldiers chose to join the army because it offered a better income than farming and also offered an opportunity to improve their social status.
  • Roman soldiers wore simple tunics.
  • The soldier's status dropped when he had less equipment. The third class possessed a shield, sword, and spear, while the fourth had only the shield and spear.
  • Any poorer citizen was called Capite Censi and only drafted into the army in an emergency.
  • Under no circumstances were women allowed to join the army.
  • This military composition was different because it included three lines of 120 men called maniples, as opposed to one large mass called a phalanx.
  • The Roman army had a strength of about 150,000 full-time soldiers, and three-fourths of the remaining army were conscripts.
  • Emperor Augustus had 28 legions of heavy infantry of 5000 men each
  • The soldiers of the legions were Roman citizens or those living in the Roman colonies.
  • Emperor Augustus had 250 auxilia regiments. Each regiment had 500 men, which, at around 125,000 men, made up about 50% of the total army.
  • Soldiers, who had their own weapons and armor, served in the heavy infantry and cavalry.
  • Training became standardized and compensation in the form of citizenship, farmland, or a portion of the spoils of war became more profitable.
  • The criterion for recruitment was the age of the soldier.
  • The soldiers went through a probationary period in which their physical and mental abilities were assessed.
  • After probation, the recruit was then sent to the Romans for four months of trainingSoldier.
  • They made wooden dummies so that the soldiers could learn how to use weapons.
  • The weapons used for training were intentionally heavier than actual war equipment.
  • They were trained to use their shields as weapons.
  • The most favored weapon was the gladius, a sword about half a meter long. The sword was double-edged, making it perfect for thrusting into the enemy.
  • Many frontline military units used a spear called a pilum
  • Centurions wore helmets with large appendages that made them visible to soldiers on the battlefield.
  • An oath was compulsory for all soldiers. It was called the Sacramentum Militare.
  • The Roman army also paid heavily to train their horses; It was important that the horses remained calm in the atmosphere of the fight.
  • Roman soldiers could not marry during their time in imperial service, but this was slowly changing and some soldiers in higher ranks were able to marry.
  • The Roman legionnaire was a soldier who was a Roman citizen under 45.
  • Legionnaires served in the army for 20 years.
  • Legionnaires were also skilled engineers and craftsmen because they had to build roads, bridges and forts.
  • The soldiers of the Roman army wore helmets and body armor.
  • Hastati, the first line of soldiers, usually wore breastplates called cuirass, and some wore lorica hamata, or mail.
  • the second line of soldiers could afford lorica hamata.
  • The third line of soldiers, the triarii, had a hasta, a six-foot spear.
  • All legionnaires had a large rectangular shield, the scutum, which had rounded corners.
  • Larger weapons such as the ballista (large crossbow) and onager (catapult) were used in larger battles.
  • The soldiers were expected to march about 36 km (24 miles) in five hours
  • Soldiers pledged to fight for 20 years.

Who was the gladiator?

Roman gladiators were people who fought in gladiatorial games as entertainment for large crowds in Rome. They fought with each other or with animals, sometimes to the death. They were armed with deadly weapons and in most cases fought until one of them accepted defeat or was killed in battle.

Gladiators were usually slaves and criminals. They were trained in special schools. They used many types of weapons. Some fought with swords, others with knives or tridents. They fight in a large arena called the amphitheater. The winner received palm branches and sometimes money. A champion could be allowed to retreat. Sometimes he won his freedom.

The first known gladiator show in Rome took place in 264 BC. instead of The early gladiator games were part of celebrations of war victory. Gladiator owners and sponsors of such games staged extravagant gladiator fights in honor of dead citizens in order to win favors from their powerful and wealthy descendants.

Gladiator games reached the peak of their popularity in the last days of the Roman Republic. The rise of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire meant that gladiatorial combat gradually came to an end. The Christian Emperor Constantine I banned them in 325 AD.

There were a few women who were gladiators and they fought other women. Interestingly, certain emperors such as Caligula, Commodus, Titus and Claudius also participated in such sports. However, the battles involving emperors were designed to avoid minimal risk to them.

Sometimes fights lasted a long time. If the crowd got bored, the referee could call the fight a draw. If the Emperor was present, he would ask the crowd to decide whether or not to kill the loser, but people had their favourites. They wanted their gladiators alive so they could fight again another day.

If a gladiator died in the arena, their trainer could charge the person who sponsored the event up to 100 times the cost of a surviving gladiator. If a gladiator was badly injured or conceded defeat, the crowd watching in the arena could decide what happened to them.

Conclusion

Rome went through three different stages. The first was Rome as a kingdom. The second phase was Rome as a republic. The third stage was Rome as an empire. The Romans believed in many gods. The Roman gods are actually inspired by the Greek gods.

Ancient Roman literature began sometime around 240 BC. Drama and poetry, so influential, began to appear towards the end of Rome. The style of Roman dress was influenced by the ancient Greeks and over time evolved into integrated styles and costumes from across the Roman Empire.

The Romans were professional engineers and builders. They developed many new techniques for buildings and constructions of all kinds, including Roman roads, Roman arches, and aqueducts.

(Video) Ancient Rome 101 | National Geographic

The Romans wanted their art to be as practical and useful as possible. They developed many new techniques for buildings and constructions of all kinds, including Roman roads, Roman arches, and aqueducts. Roman architecture is known for a variety of reasons including arches, domes, aqueducts, amphitheatres, baths, temples, apartment blocks and houses.

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FAQs

What was a fact of life in ancient Rome? ›

They lived in beautiful houses – often on the hills outside Rome, away from the noise and the smell. They enjoyed an extravagant lifestyle with luxurious furnishings, surrounded by servants and slaves to cater to their every desire.

What are 5 things the Romans are most famous for? ›

  • 13 Things The Romans Did For Us. Published: 14 January 2022. ...
  • Fast Food. It might seem a modern marvel, but the Romans were the first to introduce street stalls and 'food on the move' as we might think of it today. ...
  • Advertising and Trademarks. ...
  • Plumbing and Sanitation. ...
  • Towns. ...
  • Architecture. ...
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  • Our Calendar.
14 Jan 2022

Who were the 4 main Roman gods? ›

The three most important gods were Jupiter (protector of the state), Juno (protector of women) and Minerva (goddess of craft and wisdom). Other major gods included Mars (god of war), Mercury (god of trade and messenger of the gods) and Bacchus (god of grapes and wine production).

How many Roman gods are there? ›

The 12 Roman Gods were: Jupiter, Juno, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Venus, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, Ceres, Vulcan, and Vesta.

What is Roman famous for? ›

A people known for their military, political, and social institutions, the ancient Romans conquered vast amounts of land in Europe and northern Africa, built roads and aqueducts, and spread Latin, their language, far and wide.

What do Roman eat? ›

Composition of Roman Diet

The Romans primarily ate cereals and legumes, usually with sides of vegetables, cheese, or meat and covered with sauces made out of fermented fish, vinegar, honey, and various herbs and spices.

How long did a Roman live? ›

Life expectancy at birth was a brief 25 years during the Roman Empire, it reached 33 years by the Middle Ages and raised up to 55 years in the early 1900s.

What was Romans daily life? ›

A typical Roman day would start off with a light breakfast and then off to work. Work would end in the early afternoon when many Romans would take a quick trip to the baths to bathe and socialize. At around 3pm they would have dinner which was as much of a social event as a meal.

What did Romans wear? ›

Men wore a knee-length, short-sleeved tunic called a chilton. They would wear a cloak over their tunic which was carefully wrapped around their body. Important Roman men would wear a long robe called a toga made from white wool or linen. Women wore a longer tunic than men which went down to their ankles.

How did Romans start? ›

The Roman Empire was founded when Augustus Caesar proclaimed himself the first emperor of Rome in 31BC and came to an end with the fall of Constantinople in 1453CE. An empire is a political system in which a group of people are ruled by a single individual, an emperor or empress.

What are 3 things Rome gave to the world? ›

The Pantheon, the Colosseum and the Roman Forum are all examples of buildings that were built by the Romans using a form of cement. It's not the cement we use today, but as an early form it was effective and it was used in many of their structures and developments. The #Pantheon, Rome.

What language did Romans speak? ›

Latin is the language that was spoken by the ancient Romans. As the Romans extended their empire throughout the Mediterranean, the Latin language spread. By the time of Julius Caesar, Latin was spoken in Italy, France, and Spain.

What was Romans Favourite food? ›

Favourite Roman foods were fattened snails, dormice, pigeons, shellfish and game. For a typical Roman family, breakfast was a light meal of bread and fruit. The mid-day meal (prandium) was a cold snack or a light dish of fish, eggs and vegetables.

What did Romans do for fun? ›

Men all over Rome enjoyed riding, fencing, wrestling, throwing, and swimming. In the country, men went hunting and fishing, and played ball while at home. There were several games of throwing and catching, one popular one entailed throwing a ball as high as one could and catching it before it hit the ground.

Who are the 3 biggest gods? ›

The Big Three are the three most powerful gods among the Olympians - Zeus, Poseidon and Hades, the three sons of Kronos and Rhea.

What is a god name for a dog? ›

Roman God Names for Dogs
  • Apollo.
  • Ceres.
  • Cupid.
  • Diana.
  • Janus.
  • Juno.
  • Jupiter.
  • Mars.
8 Oct 2021

Who is the god of money? ›

Plutus, in Greek religion, god of abundance or wealth, a personification of ploutos (Greek: “riches”). According to Hesiod, Plutus was born in Crete, the son of the goddess of fruitfulness, Demeter, and the Cretan Iasion.

Who was the first god? ›

Who is Brahma? Brahma is the first god in the Hindu triumvirate, or trimurti. The triumvirate consists of three gods who are responsible for the creation, upkeep and destruction of the world. The other two gods are Vishnu and Shiva.

What is Rome's nickname? ›

The Eternal City is one of the most popular nicknames for Rome for excellent reasons. It has a very long history that spans millennia, and its attraction only seems to increase with each passing year.

Who are the Romans kids? ›

The Romans originated in the city of Rome in modern-day Italy. However, the Romans ruled countries across the globe - including Great Britain - which was called the Roman Empire. The Empire had a huge effect on the language, culture and history of countries in Europe, the Middle East and even Northern Africa.

What did Romans give us? ›

Though it has been thousands of years since the Roman Empire flourished, we can still see evidence of it in our art, architecture, technology, literature, language, and law. From bridges and stadiums to books and the words we hear every day, the ancient Romans have left their mark on our world.

Did Romans eat pizza? ›

Did you know pizza took the United States by storm before it became popular in its native Italy? Pizza has a long history. Flatbreads with toppings were consumed by the ancient Egyptians, Romans and Greeks. (The latter ate a version with herbs and oil, similar to today's focaccia.)

What did Romans never eat? ›

As the empire expanded new fruits and vegetables were added to the menu. The Romans had no aubergines, peppers, courgettes, green beans, or tomatoes, staples of modern Italian cooking. Fruit was also grown or harvested from wild trees and often preserved for out-of-season eating.

What did Roman poor eat? ›

As you might expect, the poor people in Rome did not eat the same food as the wealthy. The main food of the poor was a porridge call "puls." Puls was made by mixing ground wheat and water. Sometimes they might get some vegetables or fruit to eat with their puls. The poor ate very little meat.

Did any Romans survive? ›

However, while the number of Roman survivors was undoubtedly low, there were some who lived long after the battle, some evading or escaping captivity entirely, others spending decades in slavery.

How long will humans live in 2050? ›

By 2050, we could all be living to 120, but how? As hard as it is to believe, just 150 years ago the average lifespan was 40 years. Yes, what we'd consider mid-life today was a full innings for our great-great-grandparents.

How did Rome fall? ›

Invasions by Barbarian tribes

The most straightforward theory for Western Rome's collapse pins the fall on a string of military losses sustained against outside forces. Rome had tangled with Germanic tribes for centuries, but by the 300s “barbarian” groups like the Goths had encroached beyond the Empire's borders.

What did Romans do at night? ›

The ancient Romans loved to “seize the moment” and for this reason they used to spend their time during the night either studying, meditating or doing other things. This kind of sleep was natural because the body had no other factors to adapt to, except the sun's natural rhythm.

How many hours did Romans work? ›

Work & Leisure

Most Romans worked a six-hour day, beginning at dawn and ending at noon, although, occasionally some shops might reopen in the early evening.

Did Romans go to school? ›

Formal schools were established, which served to paying students; very little that could be described as free public education existed. Both boys and girls were educated, though not necessarily together.

What did Girl Romans wear? ›

For most of ancient Roman history, respectable Roman women wore the stola — a long dress that reached down to the feet that was worn over a tunic. The stola was usually sleeveless and could be made out of a range of materials, though it had traditionally been made out of wool, like the toga.

What did Roman kids wear? ›

Clothes Worn by Roman Children

Most Roman children were a simple tunic which was belted at the waist. Boys wore a tunic down to their knees and a cloak if it was cold. Rich boys could also wear a toga with a purple border. Girls would wear a tunic with a woolen belt that was tied around their waists.

Did Romans only wear red? ›

Fragments of surviving clothing and wall paintings indicate that the basic tunic of the Roman soldier was of red or undyed (off-white) wool. Senior commanders are known to have worn white cloaks and plumes.

Who founded Rome? ›

According to tradition, on April 21, 753 B.C., Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, found Rome on the site where they were suckled by a she-wolf as orphaned infants.

Why was Rome so special? ›

It was a powerful civilisation that ruled for nearly a 1000 years, controlling a huge portion of Europe. Ancient Rome is remembered for its supreme power, advanced engineering, military successes, religious customs, entertainment and its brutality.

How old is Rome? ›

Why is Rome called Rome? ›

It is said that Romulus and his twin brother Remus, apparent sons of the god Mars and descendants of the Trojan hero Aeneas, were suckled by a she-wolf after being abandoned, then decided to build a city. The brothers argued, Romulus killed Remus, and then named the city Rome after himself.

Who ended the Roman Empire? ›

The fall of Rome was completed in 476, when the German chieftain Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor of the West, Romulus Augustulus. The East, always richer and stronger, continued as the Byzantine Empire through the European Middle Ages.

Who was the first Roman leader? ›

The first Roman Emperor is commonly referred to as Emperor Augustus. But he was, in fact, known under several different names throughout his life. Augustus' birth name was Gaius Octavius. Even today, some historians still call him Octavius when discussing his early life.

What did Romans leave us? ›

But even after they were gone, the Romans left their mark all over the country. They gave us: new towns, plants, animals, a new religion and new ways of reading and counting.

What were the 12 tables of Rome? ›

The Twelve Tables (aka Law of the Twelve Tables) was a set of laws inscribed on 12 bronze tablets created in ancient Rome in 451 and 450 BCE. They were the beginning of a new approach to laws which were now passed by government and written down so that all citizens might be treated equally before them.

What were Romans good at? ›

The Romans were prodigious builders and expert civil engineers, and their thriving civilization produced advances in technology, culture and architecture that remained unequaled for centuries.

How long did the Romans live? ›

Mortality. When the high infant mortality rate is factored in (life expectancy at birth) inhabitants of the Roman Empire had a life expectancy at birth of about 22–33 years.

What were Romans famous for? ›

A people known for their military, political, and social institutions, the ancient Romans conquered vast amounts of land in Europe and northern Africa, built roads and aqueducts, and spread Latin, their language, far and wide.

What are 3 things we get from ancient Rome? ›

Here are just a few examples.
  • Roads. The old proverb “all roads lead to Rome” (usually interpreted as “many paths may lead one to the same goal”) stems from the fact that originally they sort of did, or rather they came from Rome. ...
  • Central heating. ...
  • Concrete. ...
  • The calendar. ...
  • Flushing toilets and sewers.
20 Jun 2022

Who were the Romans kids? ›

The Romans originated in the city of Rome in modern-day Italy. However, the Romans ruled countries across the globe - including Great Britain - which was called the Roman Empire. The Empire had a huge effect on the language, culture and history of countries in Europe, the Middle East and even Northern Africa.

What did the Romans want? ›

First of all, the Romans wanted to control as much of the world as they could. Their main goal was to make their empire as big and powerful as possible. They were also seeking natural resources, such as precious metals, slaves, and farmland.

Videos

1. Ancient Rome in 20 minutes
(Arzamas)
2. Ancient Rome for Kids | Learn all about the History of the Roman Empire for Kids
(Learn Bright)
3. What It Was Like To Live In Ancient Rome During Its Golden Age
(Weird History)
4. The Roman Empire - 5 Things You Should Know - History for Kids - Rome
(Smile and Learn - English)
5. Facts about Ancient Rome for kids
(Kidsview)
6. What Made The Ancient Roman Empire So Successful? | Metropolis | Timeline
(Timeline - World History Documentaries)

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